Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire Paperback – April 9, Start reading Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire on. We find that this sex difference is due to cooperative men being more likely to punish than cooperative women. In addition, men with higher. Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina (زِنًى or زِنًا) is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse. at the time, and several verses refer to unlawful sexual intercourse, including one that prescribes the punishment of lashes for fornicators.
We find that this sex difference is due to cooperative men being more likely to punish than cooperative women. In addition, men with higher. Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina (زِنًى or زِنًا) is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse. at the time, and several verses refer to unlawful sexual intercourse, including one that prescribes the punishment of lashes for fornicators. Brunei is to begin imposing death by stoning as a punishment for gay sex and adultery from next week, as part of the country's highly criticised.
Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire Paperback – April 9, Start reading Sex and Punishment: Four Thousand Years of Judging Desire on. First, the criminal statutes will usually set a range of punishments for sexual assault. This will often consist of a maximum and minimum prison term, as well as. The "raging frenzy" of the sex drive, to use Plato's phrase, has always defied control. However, that's not to say that the Sumerians, Victorians, and every civilization in between and beyond have not tried, wielding their most formidable weapon.
Although stoning for zina is not mentioned in the Quran, all schools of traditional jurisprudence agreed on the basis of hadith that it is to be punished by stoning if the offender is muhsan adult, free, Muslim, and having been marriedwith some extending this punishment to certain other cases and milder punishment prescribed in other scenarios.
Aside from "a few rare and isolated" instances from the pre-modern era and several recent cases, there is no historical record of stoning for zina being legally carried out. In Hadithsthe books trusted in Islam after Quran, the definitions of Zina have been described as all the forms of sexual intercoursepenetrative or non-penetrative, outside lawful marriage.
The zina of the eyes is looking, the zina of the tongue is speaking, one may wish and desire, and the private parts confirm that or deny it. Most of the rules related to fornication, adultery and false accusations from a husband to his wife or from members of the community to chaste women, can be found punishment Surat an-Nur the Light.
And those who accuse chaste women then do not bring four witnesses, flog them, giving eighty stripes, and do not admit any evidence from them ever; and these it is that are the transgressors.
Except those who repent after this and act aright, for surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. The public lashing and public lethal stoning punishment for fornication and adultery are also prescribed in Hadithsthe books most trusted in Islam after Quran, particularly in Kitab Al-Hudud.
Allah has sex a way for those women. When an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried female, they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married male committing adultery with a married female, they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death. Ma'iz came to the Prophet and admitted having committed adultery four times in his presence so he ordered him to be stoned to death, but said to Huzzal: If you had covered punishment with your garment, it would have been better for you.
Hadith Sahih al Bukharianother authentic source of sunnah, has several entries which refer to death by stoning. This is my brother's punishment whom my brother has asked me to take into my custody.
Sa'd said, "O Allah's Apostle! This boy is the son of my brother and he entrusted him to me. The boy did not see her again till he met Allah.
Other hadith collections on zina between men and woman punishment. Rape has been defined as zina al-zibr forcefull illicit sex in the traditional Islamic texts. Few hadiths have been found regarding sex in the time of Muhammad.
Sex most popular transmitted hadith given below indicates the ordinance of stoning for the rapist but no punishment and no requirement of four eyewitnesses for the rape victim. When a woman went out in the time of the Prophet for prayer, a man attacked her and overpowered raped her. She shouted and he went off, and when a man came by, she said: That man did such and such to me.
And when a company of the emigrants came by, she said: That man did such and such to me. They went and seized the man whom they thought had had intercourse with her and brought him to her. She said: Yes, this is he. Then they brought him to the Messenger of Allah. When he the Prophet was about to pass sentence, the man who actually had assaulted her stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, I am the man who did it to her.
He the Prophet said to her: Go away, for Allah has forgiven you. But he told the man some good words AbuDawud said: meaning sex man who was seizedand of the man who had had intercourse with her, he said: Stone him to death. He also said: He has repented to such an extent that if the people of Medina had repented similarly, it would have been accepted from them. The hadiths declare rape of a free or slave woman as zina.
Malik related to me from Nafi that a slave was in charge of the slaves in the khumus and he forced a slave-girl among those slaves against her will and had intercourse with her. Umar ibn al-Khattab had him flogged and banished him, and he did not flog the slave-girl because the slave had forced her.
Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab that gave a judgment that the rapist had to pay the raped woman her bride-price. Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done in our community about the man who rapes sex woman, virgin or non-virgin, if she is free, is that he must pay the bride-price of the like of her. If she is a slave, he must pay what he has diminished of her worth. The hadd-punishment in such cases is applied to the rapist, and there is no punishment applied to the raped woman.
If the rapist is a slave, that is against sex master unless he wishes to surrender him. If a confession or the four witnesses required to prove a hadd crime are not available, but rape can be proved by other means, the rapist is sentenced under the ta'zir system of judicial discretion. The scholars are unanimously agreed that the rapist is to be subjected to the hadd punishment if there is clear evidence against him that he deserves the hadd punishment, or if sex admits to that.
Otherwise, he is to be punished i. There is no punishment for the woman if it is true that he forced her and overpowered her, which may be proven by her screaming and shouting for help. Islamic teachings in the hadith tradition  presume same-sex attraction, extol abstention and in the Qur'an   condemn consummation.
The Quran forbids homosexual relationshipsin Al-Nisa, Al-Araf verses —84, —83, —35 of the Qur'an using the story of Lot's peopleand other surahs. For example,   . We also sent Lot: He said to his people: "Do ye commit lewdness such as no people in creation ever committed before you? For ye practice your lusts on men in preference to women: ye are indeed a people transgressing beyond bounds. Do you approach males among the worlds And leave what your Lord has created for you as mates?
But you are a people transgressing. If two men among you are guilty of lewdness, punish them both. However, there are different interpretations of the last verse where who the Quran refers to as "two among you".
Pakistani scholar Javed Ahmed Ghamidi sees it as a reference to premarital sexual relationships between men and women. In his opinion, the preceding Ayat of Sura Nisa deals with prostitutes of sex time. He believes these rulings were temporary and were abrogated later when a functioning state was established and society was ready for permanent rulings, which came in Sura Nur, Ayat 2 and 3, prescribing punishment as a punishment for adultery.
He does not see stoning as a prescribed punishment, even for married men, and considers the Hadiths quoted supporting that view to be dealing with either rape or prostitution, where the strictest punishment under Islam for spreading "fasad fil arz", meaning mischief in the land, referring to egregious acts sex defiance to the rule of law was carried out.
Punishment Hadiths consider homosexuality as zina,  and male homosexuality to be punished with death. From Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, the Punishment p. Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet said: If you find anyone doing as Lot's people did,  kill the one who does sex, and the one to whom it is done. Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: If a man who is not married is seized committing sodomyhe will be stoned to death. The discourse on homosexuality in Islam is primarily concerned with activities between men.
There are, however, a few hadith mentioning homosexual behavior in women;   The jurists are agreed that "there is no hadd punishment for lesbianism, because it is not zina. Muslim scholars justify the prohibition of sodomyanal sex liwat and oral sex, on the basis of the Qur'anic versesaying that it commands intercourse only in the vagina i.
The vaginal intercourse may be in any manner the couple wishes, that is, from behind or from the front, sitting or with the wife lying on her back or punishment her side. Khuzaymah Ibn Thabit also reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "Allah is not too shy to tell you the truth: Do not have sex with your wives in the anus.
Ibn Abbas narrated: "The Messenger of Allah said: "Allah will not look at a man who has anal sex with his wife. He replied, "Last night I turned my wife over," meaning that he had had vaginal intercourse with her from the back. The Prophet did not say anything to him until the verse cited above was revealed. Then he told him, "[Make love with your wife] from the front or the back, but avoid the anus and intercourse during sex.
Islamic law establishes two categories of legal, sexual relationships: between husband and wife, and between a man and his concubine. From the story of Lot it is clear that the Qur'an regards sodomy as an egregious sin. The death by stoning for people of Sodom and Gomorrah is similar to the stoning punishment stipulated for illegal heterosexual sex. There is no punishment for a man who sodomizes a woman because it is not tied to procreation. However, other jurists insist that any act of lust in which the result is the injecting of semen into another person constitutes sexual intercourse.
In Islam, oral sex between a husband and a wife is considered "Makruh Tahrimi"  or highly undesirable by some Islamic jurists when the act is defined as the mouth and the punishment coming in contact with the genitals. The most common argument states  that the mouth and tongue are used for the recitation of the Qur'an and for the remembrance of Allah Dhikr. Secondly, the status of genital secretions is debated among the four Sunni schoolssome scholars viewing it as impure and others not.
Currently, sodomy is punishable by death in a number of Muslim countries, including Saudi Arabia and Yemen, as well as in Nigeria's Sharia courts. If he says: 'O you effeminate' then beat him twenty times.
And whoever has relations with someone that is a Mahram family member or blood relative then kill him. According to hadith, bestiality is defined under zina and its punishment is execution of the accused man or woman along with the animal. Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: That the Messenger of Allah said: "Whomever you see having relations with an animal then kill him and kill animal. In Islamic history, zina also included sex between Muslim man with a non-Muslim female slavewhen the slave was not owned by that Muslim man.
Sharia, in describing zina, differentiates between an unmarried Muslim, a married Muslim Muhsan and a slave Ma malakat aymanukum. The second one must be lethally stoned rajmwhile an unmarried Muslim and a slave must receive public lashing, and for a slave, the lashing count is half of an unmarried Muslim. If a pregnant woman confesses that her baby was born from an illegal relationship then she will be subject to conviction in the Islamic courts.
In cases where there are no witnesses and no confession then the woman will not receive punishment just because of pregnancy. Women can fall pregnant without committing illegal sexual intercourse. A woman could be raped or coerced. In this case, she is a victim and not the perpetrator of a crime. Therefore, she cannot be punished or even accused of misconduct merely on the strength of her falling pregnant. The four witnesses requirement for zina, that applies in case of an accusation against man or woman, is also revealed by Quranic verses through and various hadiths.
These requirements made zina virtually impossible to prove in practice. Some schools of Islamic jurisprudence fiqh created the principle of shubha doubt.
According to this principle, if there is room for doubt in the perpetrator's mind about whether the sexual act was illegal, he or she should not receive the hadd penalty, but could receive a less severe punishment at the discretion of the judge. A typical example is a man who has sex with his wife's or his son's punishment. But a man might plausibly believe that he had ownership rights over his wife's or his son's property, and so think that having sex with their slaves was legal.
Their rationale was that since legal sex is legitimized, in part, by payment the dower paid by the husband to the wife upon marriage, or the purchase price of punishment slavea man might plausibly believe that prostitution, which also involves a payment in return for sexual access, was legal. Persons who are not muhsan i.
To legalise such cruel and inhuman penalties is appalling of itself. LGBT rights are human rights. Gay rights groups pointed out that 2, British troops are stationed in Brunei and the UK is urgently seeking a new trade deal with the oil-rich country. The British trade envoy for Brunei, Paul Scully, was in the country in October for talks, and there have been calls for him and the Foreign Office to join Mordaunt in condemning the plans.
The sultan, despite the austere religious laws governing moral behaviour in Brunei, was embroiled in a scandal involving his brother Prince Jefri Bolkiah, who was accused of misappropriating billions of dollars from the state during his tenure as finance minister in the s, leading to a long-running feud between the pair.
The death penalty will also be required for some other offenses, including rape and some forms of blasphemy or heresy, like ridiculing the Quran or insulting the Prophet Muhammad.
The law requires amputation of a hand or foot for some crimes, and whipping for others. The punishment for lesbian sex, previously imprisonment and a fine, is now to be 40 lashes. In some cases, the harshest penalties apply only to Muslims; in other cases, they apply regardless of faith.
The punishments apply to many people who would be considered minors in the West. Anyone who has reached puberty is treated as an adult — while younger children who are old enough to understand right and wrong may be flogged. Before the experiment took place, subjects were instructed about the procedures. They filled in a questionnaire eliciting their ethnicity and self-perceived attractiveness SPA , measured in a slider scale. All the methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations of the institution, and informed consent of all the participants was obtained.
The experiment was programmed using the z-Tree 3. They had to decide whether to cooperate or not with an anonymous counterpart. This counterpart was an anonymous participant in a previous session. We informed participants that their decisions would be employed in future sessions as anonymous potential counterparts. We also asked our participants about the behavior they expected from their counterpart. Participants were not informed about the result of this interaction. In the second stage, participants played as observers.
They were presented a PDG between two other individuals. The individuals playing the PDG observed by our participants were subjects of future experimental sessions, so their punishment decisions had monetary consequences. We implemented the decisions of observers in a separate series of sessions whose data is not included in the present analysis. Participants were paid according to their choices during the entire session, which included other experiments not analysed in the present study.
In the PDG stage, payoffs were as follows: if they both cooperated, participants got 90 points; if none of them cooperated, they both got 30 points; if one of them cooperated and the other did not, the cooperator got 10 points, and the defector points. In the 3PP stage, participants were assigned 80 points and were asked whether they would pay half of these points 40 points to decrease by points the total earnings of the uncooperative participant they were observing.
The size of stakes was thus relatively small, a feature which could affect strategic behavior We nonetheless employed these values as they had already been successfully implemented in similar studies 22 , Let us emphasize that our design allows participants to engage in truly altruistic punishment 13 , 62 , There was only one punishing stage, so there was no strategic motivation to exert 3PP; that is, there were no additional future interactions that participants could take into account when making their decisions.
In addition, participants could not use 3PP to build up reputation because their choice was one-shot and was not made public. Their motivation could not be revenge either, since participants could not punish individuals they had interacted with at any moment. Punishments could not be affected either by distributional concerns such as spite or inequality aversion, as participants were not informed of the outcome of the PDG they were observing. Finally, let us reiterate that punishment decisions were costly to our participants and had an actual effect on other participants; they were not hypothetical and had real consequences.
We obtained hand-scans from each participant with a CanoScan LiDE scanner as well as two frontal facial photographs in standardized conditions.
Lengths of the second and fourth digits were measured from the hand scans as it is customary in the literature 21 , 86 , We computed their ratios, averaged the two resulting numbers, and included them in the analysis.
In order to compute the facial FA and facial dimorphism measures, two independent observers placed 39 predefined landmarks in the two photographs of each participant with the TPS 2. Morphometric analyses were carried out with MorphoJ 1. The Mahalanobis FA score was computed, using the methods described in the literature Higher scores indicate higher facial shape differences from the other sex.
Statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS We checked the normality of all variables and of the residuals in all models. We analysed the relationship between biological variables and behavior by means of t-tests.
Models were built following standard recommendations 88 , 89 , namely testing each variable independently and introducing all the significant ones and those with a strong theoretical support in one model for men and women separately. We included the choice and the expected behavior of the counterpart in the first stage PDG, considering the behavior displayed as a measure of cooperativeness. Next, we tested those variables in a single model including their interaction with sex, searching for the simpler significant model.
Finally, we checked the interactions between the remaining variables. As it is recommended for logistic models 90 , we computed effect sizes for all variables in the form of risk ratios, i. For continuous variables, the change consists of a one standard deviation increase from the mean of the variable. For dichotomous variables, the change is just from 0 to 1. A comparison between the effect size after and before their inclusion in the model are showed in Supplementary Fig.
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